Causes and Diagnoses

You or your child may have been diagnosed with a condition such as those described BELOW that are known to affect the way the hypothalamus works. If so, we are requesting that you enroll in the patient registry and submit details of your case. This will allow researchers to better understand and improve treatment of these conditions. 

Those individuals who are believed to be affected by hypothalamic obesity as demonstrated obesity in the setting of one or more of these diagnoses/conditions or exposures:

Diagnoses/Conditions related to Hypothalamic Obesity 

Cancers & Tumors

  • Brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body.
  • Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland.
  • Epithelioma is a benign or malignant tumor derived from epithelium.
  • Ganglioneuroma is a benign growth composed of nerve fibers.
  • Pituitary macroadenoma is a benign growth that comes from glandular tissue in the pituitary gland.
  • Teratoma is a tumor consisting of different types of tissue such as   skin, hair, and muscle.

Infection & Inflammation

  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, usually caused by a direct viral infection.
  • Histiocytosis X is a rare childhood disease in which there is an overgrowth of a type of tissue cell called a histiocyte caused by a disturbance of the immune system.
  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges of the brain and the spinal cord, most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection
  • Sarcoidosis is an inflammation that produces lumps of cells (granulomas) in the tissues of the body. Granulomas can grow and clump together, affecting how an organ functions.

Genetic Conditions

  • Bardet-Biedl is a syndrome is a human genetic disorder that produces many effects and affects many body systems. It is characterized mainly by obesity.
  • Leptin deficiency is a lack of hormone (leptin) that signals fat storage/ or part of the hormonal mechanism that participates in regulation of appetite.
  • Prader-Willi Syndrome is a congenital condition characterized by obsessive eating, obesity, mental retardation, and small genitalia.


  • Cranial radiotherapy is radiation therapy to the head intended to prevent cancer from spreading (metastasizing) to other parts of the body.
  • Head Trauma is a head injury is any trauma (blow) that leads to injury of the scalp, skull, or brain.
  • Hydrocephalus is a usually congenital condition in which an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain
  • Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood.
  • Hyperinsulinemia is an endocrine disorder characterized by a failure of our blood sugar control system to work properly.
  • High blood pressure or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Arteries are vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all the tissues and organs of the body.
  • Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep.


  • Adrenal Corticosteroid is a hormone need for health.  Dexamethasone, Hydrocortisone, Prednisone
  • Caffeine is a bitter substance found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, kola nuts, and certain medicines. It has many effects on the body's metabolism, including stimulating the central nervous system. This can make you more alert and give you a boost of energy.
  • DDAVP (desmopressin acetate) is a synthetic analogue of the natural pituitary hormone 8-arginine vasopressin (ADH), an antidiuretic hormone affecting renal water conservation.
  • Dextroamphetamine is in a class of medications called central nervous system stimulants. It works by changing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain.
  • Ephedrine is commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant.
  • Growth Hormone is a hormone needed for height growth, muscle development and bone minerals.
  • Leptin is a hormone that signals fat storage and regulation of appetite in the brain.
  • Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood.
  • Octreotide immediate-release injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with a condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms.
  • Orlistat (prescription and nonprescription) is used in overweight people who may also have high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, or heart disease. Orlistat is also used after weight-loss to help people keep from gaining back that weight.
  • Sex Hormone Therapy: homones related to puberty and sexual function.  Estrogen, prgesterone, testosterone
  • Ritalin is used as part of a treatment program to control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has side effect of weight loss.
  • Sibutramine is in a class of medications called appetite suppressants. It works by acting on appetite control centers in the brain to decrease appetite .
  • Thyroid hormone: Synthroid, Levoxyl, Eltroxin, armour Thyroid, Nature Throid, Cytomel, and Triiodothyronine (also known as T3).  Thyroid hormone affects almost every process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate.